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Medial Temporal Sclerosis

Mesial temporal sclerosis is scarring in the inner portions of the temporal lobe, which is the part of the brain that process emotions and is important for short-term memory. Mesial temporal sclerosis may happen when the brain doesn’t get enough oxygen or if you have experienced head trauma or an infection in the brain infection. However, the cause of mesial temporal sclerosis is sometimes unknown.

Mesial temporal sclerosis can cause a type of epilepsy called temporal lobe epilepsy. People who have temporal lobe seizures may experience odd feelings, such as euphoria, déjà vu, or fear.

After a temporal lobe seizure, many people:

  • Feel confused
  • Have difficulty speaking
  • Are unable to remember what happened during the seizure
  • Do not know that they have had a seizure
  • Experience extreme sleepiness

Anti-seizure medications are often prescribed as a treatment for temporal lobe seizures. If your seizures do not respond to medication, surgery may be an option.


Cortical Dysplasia

Cortical dysplasia is a congenital abnormality in the brain’s development. Congenital means that the condition was present at birth. Cortical dysplasia occurs when the top layer of the brain does not form properly before a child is born, and it is one of the most common causes of epilepsy.

The most common type of cortical dysplasia is focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). There are three types of FCD:

  • Type I – this type is hard to see on a brain scan. Patients with type 1 FCD often do not start having seizures until they are adults.
  • Type II – type 2 is a more severe form of cortical dysplasia. This type is seen more often in children.
  • Type III – type 3 includes one of the above described dysplasias, as well as damage in another part of the brain. Type 3 FCD may also be caused by brain injury that occurs early in life.

The first step in treatment of cortical dysplasia is controlling the seizures. Anti-seizure medications are often prescribed as a treatment for cortical dysplasia. A special diet, called a ketogenic diet, may also be tried to help control the seizures. If your seizures do not respond to medication, surgery may be an option for cortical dysplasia.